First experiments

he use of Czochralski’s method to measure the crystallization velocity of a growing single crystal was a natural consequence of his discovery. Almost immediately (1918) Wartenberg saw the importance of Czochralski’s invention for the specific purpose of growing single crystals (in this case metals). He was also the first to use a seed for growing crystals (instead of a capillary). The first modification of this method (invention of pulling shaped crystals by using an orifice) was published by Gomperz in 1922, next by Mark et al. in 1923, by Linder in 1925 and by Hoyem and Tyndall in 1929. The method invented by Czochralski was described as a method for growing crystals in a review of crystal growth methods written by Sachs as early as 1925, and in 1935 when Schmid and Boas described the Czochralski method as a method

of crystal growth by pulling from a crucible. So, it is clear that the Czochralski method was treated as a method of crystal growing well be-fore World War II.

There is also a significant paper by Czochralski himself published in 1925 on metals science and physical research (presented at the Inter national Congress of Applied Mechanics in Delft, April 1924). In the chapter “The preparation of single crystals” Czochralski pointed out the importance of single crystals in studying the physical properties of met als. He presented the so-called “capillary method” for growing single crys tal wires which was, in reality, a new application for his own method for measuring the crystallization velocity of materials! Moreover, he underlined that this method of crystal growing could also be used as a method for measuring the crystallization velocity. Thus, the statement by Scheel that “Czochralski never considered pulling a crystal for research” is not true.

Buckley wrote in his book that this apparatus “soon found its greatest use in the formation of single-crystal wires of various metals”. That is why, as it seems, this method used exclusively for growing single crystals of metals, was not reported in the first Crystal Growth Congress in Bristol, 1949, which was a congress of non – metal crystal growth.